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Cherokee Phoenix
Vol. I No. 25
Wednesday, August 20, 1828
Pg. 2 Col. 1b

CHEROKEE LANGUAGE.
ANSWER TO PROFESSOR RAFINESQUE'S QUESTIONS.
[Continued]

 Question 6. "Are there not several dialects of the language yet spoken,or is the uniformity complete? what is become of the Ayrati dialect which changed L into R, and called the Mountain Cherokis Otari  instead of Otali, and the whole nation Chiroki whence your English name of Cherokees?  Are they all gone to Arkansas?"

 Answer: There are two principal dialects in the nation, each of which is denominated by those who speak the opposite (Cherokee symbols)(U-nv-sta.). Between these two there are various shades of approximation to one or theother.- There has also been a dialect called (Cherokee symbols)(gi-du-wa,) but I know not whether it is now distinguished.  Those of the one dialect give the sound of R, where the other give that of L; and the difference in other respects is considerable.  The name of the nation is not pronounced by them Chiroki, but Tsa-ra-gi.  No dialect has, or probably ever had the sound of Ch.  The name of the dialect Ayrati is not recognized.  It was probably given by some white man, and seems to have come from the word (three Cherokee symbols), signifying low, pronounced in one dialect E-la-ti, and in the other E-ra-ti.  Very few of those who speak the latter dialect were among the emigrants to Arkansas.

 Question 7.  "What is the meaning of the following historical names and words in Tsalagi, translated into English?

 Otali,  Cherokee symbols  Tsalagi,
 Alati,  Cherokee symbols  Teomi
 Olata,  Cherokee symbols  Melilo
 Teliquo,  Tanassi,    Amana
 Talasi  Cusa     Matika
 Alega  Satula    Olaimi
 Atsala  Talomeco    Utina
 Awalatsi  Timuaca,    Mayla
 Hitanatsi  Yamasi    Atsora
 Quowatsi,  Aquowaka    Hemanlini.

 Ans. Among this list I find only the following recognized by those to whom I have immediate access as Cherokee names or words; viz, Otali (Cherokee symbols) a mountain; Alati, probably Elati, (Cherokee symbols) low, below; Olata, (Cherokee symbols,) an ancient word signifying fireless, a place destitute of fire; Teliquo (Da-li-qua,) (Cherokee symbols), the name of a place in the state of Tennessee, now called by the whites Tellico; Talasi (Cherokee symbols) The name of a place; Tanassi (Cherokee symbols), the name of the Tennessee River; Cusa (Cherokee symbols), the Cherokee name of the Creek Indians; and Tsalagi, the name of the Cherokee Nation.  These names, if they were ever significant, have lost their significancy, and are known  only as proper names.  Perhaps some others in the list may have sprung from Cherokee origin, but the attempts of Englishmen to write Cherokee names have been so extremely awkward, that it is often impossible to recognize them.

 Question 8. "Try to give literal translations of the Lord's prayer and some other fragments, word for word in opposition to each other, so as to offer at once a view of words and syntax; but the words must each be separated and distinguished either in two perpendicular lines or double lines, one word Tsalagi and one word English annexed to each other and separated from all others!"

 Answer.  Literal translations, word for word, from English into Cherokee, are beyond the limits of possibility.- The following of the Lord's Prayer is perhaps as great an approximation as can conveniently be made.  The translation & retranslation are substantially the same as in No. 1 of the Phoenix, but here arranged in parallel columns, and the retranslation still more literal.

 Cherokee symbols  Our Father
 Cherokee symbols  above
 Cherokee symbols  who dwellest,
 Cherokee symbols  honored
 Cherokee symbols  be
 Cherokee symbols  thy name.
 Cherokee symbols  *Thou king
 Cherokee symbols  the being so
 Cherokee symbols  spring to light.
 Cherokee symbols  Let happen
 Cherokee symbols  what thou wilt
 Cherokee symbols  on earth,
 Cherokee symbols  above
 Cherokee symbols  as does happen.
 Cherokee symbols  Our food
  Cherokee symbols  day by day
 Cherokee symbols  bestow upon us.
 Cherokee symbols  In that we have transgressed against                                 thee
 Cherokee symbols  pity us
 Cherokee symbols  those who transgress against us.
 Cherokee symbols  and
 Cherokee symbols  do not
 Cherokee symbols  place of straying
 Cherokee symbols  lead us into
 Cherokee symbols  restrain us from
 +Cherokee symbols  (on the other hand)
 Cherokee symbols  transgression.
 Cherokee symbols  For thine [is]
 ++Cherokee symbols  ++ thou king
 Cherokee symbols  the being
 Cherokee symbols  and
 Cherokee symbols  thou strong
 Cherokee symbols  the being
 Cherokee symbols  and
 Cherokee symbols  thou honored
 Cherokee symbols  the being
 Cherokee symbols  forever.
 Cherokee symbols  This
 Cherokee symbols  let be.

 It will be observed that a single word in Cherokee requires often several English words to translate it.- Fewer words are required in Cherokee than in English to express the same ideas, for the reason, that what we express by pronouns, adverbs, and prepositions is, in Cherokee, expressed chiefly by variations of the verb.
       W.
_________________
*Thou king the being so, thy being king, thy dominion.
+ (Cherokee symbols) and (Cherokee symbols) are particles, inseparable from the word to which they are attached, and signifying variously according to the connection.  (Cherokee symbols) two lines below, is also an inseparable conjunction.
++ Thou king-thou strong-thou honored. The Cherokee word in each of these instances must necessarily have person for want of abstract terms.- The words (Cherokee symbols) however, when united, convey the same idea as in English.  Thine is the dominion, empire,  or, to coin a word, kingship.