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MLA: In-Text Citations
  • Documentation of your research paper gives credit for ALL direct quotations, paraphrases, and summaries of facts, ideas, or opinions. What appears inside the parentheses (called an in-text citation) functions as a short, specific address that corresponds to the complete address on the Works Cited list. The position of the in-text citation, usually at the end of the pertinent sentence, shows your reader exactly what information has come from the source and from which page, or its alternative.

  • An in-text citation includes the last name(s) of the author(s) and the page number(s) from which the quotation, paraphrase, or summary is taken.

  • If there is no author, use a shortened version of the title. Article titles and titles of other short works should be in quotation marks. Book, journal, and website titles should be italicized.

  • Once you have cited a source, if you refer to that text again without citing any other text, you may simply put page number(s) in the parentheses.  This guideline applies only to consecutive citations of one source.

  • If you are using more than one work by an author, include in parentheses the title of the work, or a shortened version of a longer title.

  • If you introduce an author/title within a sentence, you need to include only the page number(s) in parentheses. See “Author mentioned in text and pages in parentheses” below.

  • Page numbers are always provided parenthetically.

Click here for examples of MLA in-text citations. Refer to your writer’s handbook for guidelines on how to make any changes to direct quotations or visit the Writing and Learning Commons (227-2274) for help.


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